Is Chemson’s 3D Vinyl™ PVC technology safe to use?
Yes, and Chemson has gone to great lengths to insure that 3D Vinyl™ meets recognized standards for industrial workplace safety for VOC emissions and environmental toxicity.
3D Vinyl™ was rigorously tested by Chemson Pacific, in Sydney Australia by an independent environmental testing entity, Stephenson Environmental Management (http://www.stephensonenv.com.au/)
Chemson 3D Vinyl™ was tested alongside several varieties of common FFF/Material Extrusion filament polymers, including ABS, PLA and Nylon, with the results that Chemson 3D Vinyl™ PVC was well below workplace standards along all relevant dimensions.
The results of this (MS/GC/MS) testing clearly demonstrated that the environmental emissions of 3D Vinyl™ were between those of PLA (usually considered to be a benchmark of benignness) and ABS.
For those interested in reading through the 64 page report, simply go here and enter your details.
How does Chemson’s 3D Vinyl™ technology differ from conventional PVC?
3D Vinyl™ PVC is entirely designed from the ground up specifically for 3D Printing. Conventional PVC variants formulated for pipes, cables, flooring, etc. are simply not compatible with the unique physical and mechanical requirements of FFF/Material Extrusion systems. As part of the preliminary groundwork for the 3D Vinyl™ invention, Chemson determined early in the research that none of the traditional PVC approaches would be compatible with 3D Printing, thus requiring a wholly new approach to stabilization and other additives technology.
Does Chemson’s 3D Vinyl™ technology require a heated Chamber system ?
(NOTE June 2018: This topic will be the subject of several posts and white papers in future, but the intensive R&D to provide data driven information is still underway.)
THE SHORT ANSWER:
No, not for basic execution, and as long as you set your slicer up to execute one model at a time (if you’re running several on a single print bed, you’ll more closely approximate the optimized conditions by keeping the upper portion of the model warmer, as it’s closer to the hot end. However, in order to achieve performance that rivals or surpasses other polymers, the answer is yes, based on current, ongoing research at Chemson labs, a heated chamber (or even a temperature-stabilized/sealed systems that is not vulnerable to ambient temperature influence)will provide superior results along all conceivable dimensions.
THE LONGER ANSWER:
Recent testing with a wide variety of polymers (in filament form factor) have substantiated the value of heated chamber, and temperature stabilized/sealed chamber systems, not only with 3D Vinyl™, but also with other polymers when used for benchmark comparison. The advantage of heated-chamber industrial systems is far from new information, but until recently we have not had data sets specific to Chemson’s technology.
Current tensile testing results from filament form factor lab samples of 3DVinyl™ have indicated performance characteristics equal to, or greater than many varieties of commodity as well as specialty ABS formulations, requiring 200 – 220+ Newtons before failure, but this work is ongoing, and as stated above, will be presented in a more elaborate manner as new data becomes available.
We have known for quite some time that the performance of pellet-extruded test samples with larger beads have provided more stable thermal dissipation coefficients, and thus improved strength, and have recently expanded the fabrication of those samples to include heated chamber output across all current base formulations. This work also, is ongoing and will be published in the site as soon as we have it.
High-quality, industrial systems that include heated chamber technology are less accessible, both for reasons of manufacturing costs, as well as potential infringement on existing (but soon-to-expire) patents, but as has been the case in the Industrial AM/3DP world for quite some years, the developments of more affordable/accessible technologies are accelerating.
The important takeaway = If you want true industrial-caliber results with Chemson’s 3D Vinyl™ 3D Printable PVC technology, you’ll need the best quality tools, and that means a heated chamber system.
Stay tuned on this one…more to come.
Does Chemson’s 3D Vinyl™ technology require specialized nozzles ?
Yes, 3D Vinyl™ does require the use of specialized nozzles.
3D Vinyl™ is sensitive to nozzle composition, materials, geometry, hardness, precision, coatings and overall quality.
3D Vinyl™is not compatible with the standard brass nozzles that are provided “as-stock” on the vast majority of desktop-class filament systems, as well as a surprisingly significant portion of professional/industrial systems.
Q: Why is 3D Vinyl™ incompatible with brass, when so many other 3D Printing polymer materials are, why is PVC different?-
- Brass is “antagonistic” to the fundamental PVC chemistry and is never used in industrial PVC formulation, compounding and extrusion applications.
- The copper component in brass creates a highly charged ionic environment (+4), which produces conditions that increase PVC degradation.
- In that the overwhelming majority of commercially available filament systems are supplied with low-quality brass nozzles, these systems “as-stocK” are incompatible with 3D Vinyl™ because of the use of a brass nozzle, however, there are other components that need to be upgraded in nearly all desktop-class filament systems (hi-torque, dual drive extruder, and precision calibrated heated bed are mandatory), but the nozzle is one of the key components that must be upgraded in order to achieve acceptable performance of the 3D Vinyl™ technology.
Q: Does Chemson recommend any specific alloys/materials or brands of nozzles for use with 3D Vinyl™?
- The work to determine the optimal combination of all AM/3DP systems is ongoing, though we have more data and a longer period of empirical knowledge with filament systems (as those systems were the initial basis for fundamental R&D). Most of the nozzles used in the original R&D were custom fabricated by local sources out of several varieties of steel to insure the highest and most consistent quality ( just because something is “steel” does not guarantee that it is high quality steel).
- However, the availability of after-market, and in some cases manufacturer-supplied options for professional/industrial quality nozzles has increased recently.
- At present (at least with filament systems) we can say that the best performance has been obtained using the Performance 3-D Hercules™ nozzles, made from A2 Tool steel.
To learn more about Precision 3-D Products, please go to their website:
Q: Is merely swapping out the standard brass nozzle for a high-quality steel nozzle all that is required to use 3D Vinyl™
A: No. there are other “pro-mods” required if attempting upgrade the vast majority of commercially available desktop-class systems, so it is important to understand these requirement as well.
- As referenced in other other FAQ answers, and in other documentation on this website, 3D Vinyl™ requires higher torque and downward extrusion vector forces in order to achieve optimal performance. Unfortunately few desktop-class systems are supplied “as-stock” with these features, so here too, these upgrades must be added by the user (or a specialist 3D printer upgrade provider).
- The standard commodity stepper motors that are used in 100% of modestly-priced desktop 3D printers, a great number of semi-professional and even many systems marketed as “industrial” are simply not sufficient. In addition, the absence of a geared extruder mechanism precludes the use of many of these systems for successful extrusion of 3D Vinyl™ filament (pellets are a different story as those systems are almost always truly industrial in design and electro-mechanical specifications, and are equipped with much higher quality components).
- Fortunately, the inclusion of geared, hi-torque extruder mechanisms, as well as dual-drive extruder mechanisms has increased as the knowledge of the enormous benefits these upgrades provide is disseminated and shared.
- For those wishing to explore/perform these upgrades and “pro-mods” on more modest systems, we would refer you to the products available from Bondtech website, and can attest to their quality as well as the fact that those products (as well as some from other suppliers) are in use for 3D Vinyl™ R&D and testing throughout Chemson labs around the globe and by many of the field testers cooperating with Chemson.
Does Chemson’s 3D Vinyl™ technology require a heated build surface?
Yes, the current formulations of 3D Vinyl™ most definitely requires a heated build surface, as do all of the other true industrial polymers used in professional/industrial 3D printing and AM applications; 3D Vinyl simply can’t be treated as a substitute for/alternative to PLA or other “consumer-friendly” polymers.
At some point in the future, Chemson will hope to release a version of 3D Vinyl that is more, “plug and play”, but there is no telling how long that may take or if there will be significant demand to justify the required R&D.
- Use of current formulations of 3D Vinyl™ on entry-level systems designed for PLA is not advised for a number of technical reasons, and the lack of a heated bed/heated build surface is one of the more significant, as the material will not adhere to the bed properly, and will not provide optimal performance.
- Current formulations of 3D Vinyl have some unique requirements that preclude its use on entry-level and hobbyist-oriented desktop systems, including those entry-level/hobbyist-oriented systems that have a heated build surface. So in addition, it’s important to know some of the other requirements, which include the need for high quality steel (stainless/hardened tool-steel with specific coatings, etc) nozzles, and high torque/geared extruder drive systems.
- Also, it is worthy of mention here that unlike most other AM/3DP compatible polymers, 3D Vinyl™ can’t be left in a static position at elevated temperature (meaning left in the hot end while the hot end is at extrusion temperature of approximately 220º C – 240ºC) as is the case with certain other polymers, as it will degrade more quickly, resulting in a buildup that will clog the extruder mechanism.
- As has been stated elsewhere on the site, the current formulations of 3D Vinyl™ are best suited to experienced professional/industrial users who have access to pro-level systems, or can confidently modify/upgrade systems for its use.
Are there plans for formulations of 3D Vinyl™ containing “functional fillers” (Graphene, CNT's Glass-filled)?
Yes, there will soon be a number of 3D Vinyl™ formulations containing a range of functional fillers, each with various physical property enhancement and improvement capabilities.
This work is in the early stages, but is ongoing and will be accelerated during the second half of 2018.
The following functional fillers are currently in the global testing pipeline:
Graphene-oxide modified ;
Graphene-oxide modified version(s) designed to provide electrical conductivity, strong mechanical strength, unparalleled thermal conductivity, etc. Graphene-oxide is a promising nanoscale-filler for the formulation of several possible varieties of the base 3D Vinyl™ technology, which lends itself readily to such modification improvements.
Graphene oxide modified polymers can significantly improve fracture toughness of such at very low volume fraction by deflecting the advancing crack in the matrix.
Glass-filled 3D Vinyl™ versions containing both glass-fibres and spheres are envisaged in such areas of usage where glass-filled Nylon has found acceptance. Glass-infused 3D Vinyl™ is expected to provide a long list of property improvements including weatherability and strength upgrades in combination.
Glass filled materials generally provide improved mechanical properties such as higher rigidity or strength and may also have improved surface hardness, along with chemical resistance enhancements in demanding chemical resisting applications.
Carbon nano-tube versions ;
Carbon fibre reinforced polymers are known to provide vastly improved strength-to-weight ratios and have found greatest acceptance wherever those advanced characteristics and rigidity are required. These modifications are frequently applied in fields like aerospace, automotive, marine, transport and other specialized technical applications, including those applications requiring semi-conductive properties.
The Chemson 3D Printing Materials Group are exploring all of the aforementioned applications as well as the accelerating acceptance carbon fiber reinforced polymers as well as the increased use of PVC and reinforced/functional PVC in the construction sector.
For those interested specifically in the work on these functional variations to the 3D Vinyl™ technology, and would like to discuss their applications, please make contact by sending an email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Will there be other formulations than the current rigid formulation offered in the future?
A range of formulations are under development. PVC is one of the most modifiable polymers. This allows Chemson’s R&D department to create many possible variants of 3D Vinyl™ PVC.
Here are some of the 3D Vinyl™ variants that Chemson will be exploring in the future:
- Ultra fire-resistant
- Graphite filled
- Carbon-nanotube filled
Please be patient, we are confident that it will be worth the wait.
Which FFF 3D Printing platforms is Chemson’s 3D Vinyl™ technology compatible with?
Filament fed desktop systems: In theory, 3D Vinyl™ should work with most high-quality FFF/Material extrusion desktop systems as long as the user guidelines are followed and the material is not kept at elevated temperature in a static position beyond the recommended limits.
See user guide for filament systems here: https://www.3d-vinyl.com/successful-print…3dvinyl-filament/
However, the current formulations of this technology are designed primarily for industrial uses. Chemson is not recommending the use of this technology by those unwilling to engage in a certain degree of system tuning of hardware, slicing parameters and trial and error , to understand the behavior of your system and printing environment.
3D Vinyl™ is an industrial material and is by no means to be considered a “plug and play” substitute for PLA, PETG, ABS or other polymers commonly used in hobby/desktop 3D printing.
We have successfully tested 3D Vinyl™ on various platforms (some with aftermarket modifications, some without) and will be publishing the data from these and ongoing tests in the future.
Because of the plethora of 3D Printer hardware and software configurations out there, it’s very difficult to generalise that our filament will work for all machines.
However these factors will increase the chance of making 3D Vinyl™ PVC a success on your system:
- A stainless steel nozzle with an aperture of greater than 0.5mm
- A high-quality geared or dual-drive extruder, such as those offered by Bondtech (http://www.bondtech.se/en/start/)
- A teflon-lined hotend that is designed with professional/engineering maintenance, disassembly and cleaning in mind.
PVC in general, is heat sensitive: it carbonizes to a black solid if left in the hotend in a static position for more than 20 minutes. Diligence and supervision must be practised while 3D Printing 3D Vinyl™ PVC.
3D Vinyl™ PVC is an advanced filament, it is recommended for those who are experienced with 3D Printing other more professional/ industrial materials and those who are familiar with more in-depth 3D Printer calibration, mechanics and maintenance.
Filament fed industrial systems:
In theory, yes 3D Vinyl™ should work with most industrial-grade FFF/Material extrusion systems, as long as the user guidelines are followed and the material is not kept at elevated temperature in a static position beyond the recommended limits.
See user guide – here Pellet-fed systems: https://www.3d-vinyl.com/successful-print…-3dvinyl-pellets/
As with any industrial processes, supervision and professional experience are prerequisites for success. As many of the systems potentially deployed in this context may not be purpose designed for AM/3DP (such as the Push Plastic/Titan System, that has been designed from the ground up for vertical, gravity fed AM output and has proven to provide superior performance with 3D Vinyl™), experience with single- screw extrusion systems for synthetic polymers as well as some fundamental exposure to injection molding will be helpful. Those wishing to use 3D Vinyl™ pellets are encouraged to contact Chemson to discuss their application for technical guidance.
Recent field and user testing during 2017/2018 has clearly demonstrated that the performance of 3D Vinyl™ PVC is genuinely superb when used with pellet-fed extrusion systems. Though these pellet-fed extrusion systems are still somewhat new to the industrial additive/ advanced manufacturing sector, they are expected to proliferate dramatically in the near future.
Chemson is committed to the deployment of ongoing R&D resources towards an immersion in the myriad possibilities offered by theses systems, as they provide far greater industrial speeds, and sizes of parts output for low run production and a long list of other advantages.
There are a long list of reasons, but some of them are as follows:
PVC uses 57% chlorine derived from sea salt and 43% carbon derived from hydrocarbons (primarily Ehtylene), the chlorine content reduces the fossil fuel footprint of PVC by approximately half when compared to other 3D Printing polymers. Hence PVC is a far more sustainable material than other synthetic polymers.
PVC has one of the lowest embodied energy and water consumption used during manufacturing.
PVC is 100% recyclable. In both rigid and plasticized forms, PVC is one of the most straightforward plastics to recycle completely and convert back to a pelletized (compound) form to be repurposed into other end-use products.
PVC is durable. It is resistant to weathering, rotting, chemical corrosion, shock and abrasion. It is therefore the preferred choice for a range of customers for many different long-life and outdoor products. In fact, medium and long-term applications account for some 85 percent of PVC production in the building and construction sector. http://www.pvc.org/en/p/what-makes-pvc-important”
PVC is highly modifiable polymer and this lends itself well to specific applications for industry where specialized performance properties are desired.
Does Chemson make a specialized support material that is compatible with 3D Vinyl™?
Fortunately, our testing has indicated that 3D Vinyl™ works rather well as its own “breakaway” support material, but more testing needs to be done to understand the limitations of the strengths and shortcomings of this approach. (note: for those potentially interested in becoming beta testers for testing of this nature please contact us – we would like to hear from you).
The development of a specialized “breakaway” support material is on the development road map and some preliminary work has been achieved along these lines, but at present there is no specific PVC support material available from Chemson.
What, if any 3rd party support materials does Chemson recommend for use with 3D Vinyl™?
We have no specific recommendations of 3rd party support materials at the present time, but testing of various support materials both in breakaway and dissolvable is on the schedule for 2018. (note: for those potentially interested in becoming beta testers for testing of this nature please contact us – we would like to hear from you).
Is Chemson 3D Vinyl™ compatible with ex-warranty, or current Stratasys FDM platforms?
Not at this time, but exploration along these lines is already underway.
Stratasys machines run at a higher temperature than is optimal for current 3D Vinyl™ formulations. Also, using any material on Stratasys systems would of course require understanding which Stratasys compatible support materials would also be compatible with 3D Vinyl™ (Stratasys systems use dual extrusion and sophisticated software-driven temperature regulation and optimization for both model and support material extrusion).
What are the unique materials properties of PVC that would be advantageous?
PVC provides one of the highest levels of inherent UV resistance, as well as and being exceptionally chemical and solvent resistant. PVC is also self-extinguishing and can be modified to to have it’s fire retardant and smoke-suppression properties increased.
PVC is also used extensively in marine and outdoor environments often considered too harsh for other synthetic plastic polymers.
Does PVC warp or shrink as much as other 3D printing polymers?
The Chemson 3D Printing Group has conducted warp testing using purpose-designed model files that would be considered “top-heavy” and would be prone to significant deflection (warping) from the print surface, or bed. Initial tests were conducted using 1.75 mm filament on higher quality desktop-class systems in a relatively controlled environment, but none of the systems used featured a sealed, heated chamber or temperature stabilized build envelope.
- By using these top-heavy models to deliberately create/induce warp forces and then measuring the deflection, we found the following: PLA warps off the bed with an average of 0.5mm of deflection (low inherent warping is one of the advantages of PLA in prototyping)
- 3D Vinyl™ PVC deflects at a comparable 1mm
- ABS deflects at a far greater average of 7mm, approximately 14x as compared to PLA and 7x as compared to current formulations of 3D
Warp testing is ongoing and Chemson plans to expand this testing to include much larger models, and on systems using pellet-fed extrusion (though warping appears to be essentially non-existent with the larger beads extruded from pellet-fed systems).
Does Chemson provide custom formulations of the fundamental technology?
Yes, indeed Chemson has extensive experience with custom formulation development for conventional PVC clients and is open to all discussions from relevant entities to discuss specialized formulations such as smoke-suppressed, glass-filled, plasticized, extreme solvent resistance, etc.
If you are interested in discussing custom formulation for industrial uses, please contact us through any of the mechanisms on the website or reach out to us by phone, we will be pleased to establish a dialog to discuss and understand your needs.
Will Chemson’s 3D Vinyl™ PVC technology be available for other 3D Printing technologies, e.g. SLA, SLS, etc.
Currently, we are solely focused on fused filament fabrication (FFF) and fused granular fabrication (FGF), however we do have plans to explore SLS and other variants in the future.
Where are Chemson’s 3D Vinyl™ filaments manufactured?
Current laboratory and professional SME samples of FFF/Material Extrusion filament are manufactured either directly by Chemson in one of several locations around the globe or else they are manufactured in the USA through tolling arrangements, under strict quality control, using state of the art extrusion technologies. However, Chemson is currently in discussion with a number of specialized AM/3DP providers around the globe for arrangements to manufacture elsewhere.
Where are Chemson’s 3D Vinyl™ pellets manufactured?
All current laboratory and professional SME samples of FGF/Material Extrusion pellets are manufactured either directly by Chemson in one of several locations around the globe or else they are manufactured through tolling arrangements, under strict quality control, using state of the art extrusion technologies. However, Chemson is currently in discussion with a number of specialized providers around the globe for arrangements to manufacture elsewhere.
Does Chemson provide samples of materials?
Absolutely, under the appropriate circumstances Chemson will gladly provide sample materials and the requisite technical support.
However, since the technology is still prior to official commercialization, and formulations are still undergoing modifications, we ask that all those interested in receiving sample material make contact with us so that someone from the 3D Printing Group can understand the use case to best determine which formulation(s) would be most compatible. 3D Vinyl™ is not compatible with all FFF/FGF systems, so it is important for us to be able to set the user up for success by understanding what they are trying to achieve and what 3DP platform they are intending to use.
Is Chemson seeking qualified AM/3DP SME’s for beta and field testing of 3D Vinyl™PVC?
Absolutely. We are actively seeking qualified beta testers with the appropriate level of experience to help evaluate current, as well as future 3D Vinyl™ formulations. If you are interested in becoming a beta tester for Chemson’s PVC materials for AM/3DP, please contact us by any of the mechanisms on the site to make us aware of your interest in becoming a part of the field testing program. Please also provide other information you think would be relevant in terms of the value you/your organization would bring to the project. Someone from the 3D Printing Materials Group will be in touch soon.
How much does Chemson 3D Vinyl™cost?
At this time (April 2018), the 3D Vinyl™ PVC technology is still not a commercially available product, so regretfully we can’t provide pricing information just yet. We anticipate a commercial release sometime later in 2018 and will make pricing information available at that time. Please register your interest in knowing when 3D Vinyl™ PVC products will be available for sale by signing up through any of the mechanisms on the website.
What current 3D Printing material is 3D Vinyl™PVC most comparable to?
3D Vinyl™ PVC has the warp-free characteristics of PLA while providing some additional mechanical and performance properties of ABS. However unlike ABS, our 3D Vinyl™ PVC technology is engineered for longer-term durability, sustainability, retention of pigment and surface finish, and is suitable for rigorous outdoor applications and exposure to marine environments.
Can 3D Vinyl™ be used for medical or health sector applications?
Chemson is only in the inchoate stages of the exploration of potential applications in the broader health and medical sectors for 3D Vinyl™. However, conventional PVC is ubiquitous in these sectors, used for sterile blood storage bags, medical and surgical tubing and a plethora of applications too long to list here.
We do not see applications this technology as being viable in any surgically implantable applications, or other closely related applications, but have not ruled out select external applications once these potentials can be explored with the involvement of the relevant subject matter experts and of course, subjected to the appropriate testing (autoclave, etc).
At present, no testing has been done by Chemson along these lines and no medical/health sector approval processes are underway.
If you/your company are interested in discussing potential applications of Chemson’s 3D Vinyl™ technology for the health sector, please contact us through any of the contact mechanisms on the site.
Has Chemson initiated any processes for certification of 3D Vinyl™ PVC within Transportation, Aerospace and related sectors, such as FST, US DoT, Boeing SSS, UL Yellowcard, Bombardier SMP 800-C, etc?
Chemson is currently investigating numerous dimensions of relevant international industrial compliance and certification standards, but these investigations are in an inchoate stage. Chemson would welcome dialog with any and all qualified SME’s and industrial sector stakeholders who would be able to provide input as to potential applications requiring the aforementioned certifications and compliance to internationally recognized standards.
If you/your company are interested in discussing potential applications of Chemson’s 3D Vinyl™ technology for the Aerospace, Aviation and Transportation sectors, please contact us through any of the contact mechanisms on the site.
Is Chemson’s 3D Vinyl™ technology available in a variety of colors?
Yes. Indeed, PVC is known for its versatility, including the ease with which it accommodates and preserves pigmentation; PVC technology has developed advanced color science techniques to provide one of the widest selections of colors available among the synthetic plastic polymer offerings (including custom colors and the full Pantone range). Due to the initial focus on the professional manufacturing and engineering sectors, Chemson’s 3D Vinyl™ technology has received limited request for colors thus far.
If you/your company are interested in discussing potential pigmentation options for Chemson’s 3D Vinyl™ technology (Minimum industrial order quantities would apply), please contact us through any of the contact mechanisms on the site.
Can individual parts made with Chemson’s 3D Vinyl™ be adhered with the use of standard PVC solvent ordinarily used for pipes?
Yes, initial testing by those in the 3D Vinyl™ beta/filed testing group have indicated that this method works exceptionally well and provides very strong bonds. In the future we will aim to provide further information as to which PVC solvents would be optimal as well as more developed data sets for tensile strength and associated mechanical properties when PVC solvent is used.
Does Chemson’s 3D Vinyl™ PVC technology respond well to sanding, painting and other methods of post-production surface modification and finishing?
Yes, however the degree of field testing devoted to these methods is still in its early stages. All early indications are that 3D Vinyl™ is very compatible with a wide variety of surface finishing techniques.
If you/your company are interested in discussing specific applications for Chemson’s 3D Vinyl™ technology incorporating specialized surface modification or finishing techniques, or might you might be interested in participating in the beta/field testing program for 3D Vinyl™ to explore surface modification and finishing techniques, please contact us through any of the contact mechanisms on the site.
Is 3D Vinyl™ PVC recyclable?
As stated above in an FAQ answer above, PVC is one of the most recycled polymers in the developed world, with dedicated PVC recycling structures already in place to recycle regular PVC items (to learn more about one of these PVC recycling entities, go to: https://www.vinylplus.eu/.
3D Vinyl™ PVC can be recycled readily at any recycling depot that accepts PVC, however it will need to be clearly marked with the “3” to indicate that it is rigid PVC.
Is 3D Vinyl™ PVC biodegradable?
3D Vinyl™ PVC and PVC in general does not biodegrade. It is mainly used for medium to long-term applications
Some formulations of conventional PVC are rumored to contain lead. Does Chemson’s 3D Vinyl™PVC contain lead?
3D Vinyl™ PVC contains no lead or other toxic heavy metals whatsoever. Chemson’s 3D Vinyl™ technology instead uses non-toxic, benign stabilizers based on Calcium/Zinc systems in which Chemson is one of the world leaders. Lead has never, and never will be considered for inclusion in any stabilizer systems within Chemson’s 3D Vinyl™ PVC.